The Meal Matters Most

What Makes Healthy Food Healthy: From a Stress Perspective

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    • Nonlinear problems are ubiquitous in nature yet there are no general principles to guide our understanding of observed complex behaviour. However, modern developments in nonlinear dynamics coupled with scaling and universality arguments have helped us make progress with problems ranging in scale from the quantum to the astrophysical. The topics covered in these strongly nonlinear phenomena range from solitons and vortices in optics, networks and disease propagation in biology, to turbulence and pattern formation in classical physics. Complexity is concerned with the central nature of change and evolution and places emphasis on the role of fluctuations and noise in self-organisation. In many of these areas, progress is most often made using an interdisciplinary approach often coupling experiment with theory. Drawing connections between many of these areas has its roots in statistical physics and critical phenomena and the approach is now finding application in emerging areas such as soft matter, complexity, biophysics.and indeed evolutionary biology and related fields.
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  192. High-Anxious Individuals Show Increased Chronic Stress Burden, Decreased Protective Immunity, and Increased Cancer Progression in a Mouse Model of Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Firdaus S. Dhabhar, Alison N. Saul, Tyson H. Holmes, Christine Daugherty, Eric Neri, Jean M. Tillie, Donna Kusewitt, and Tatiana M. Oberyszyn. PLoS One. 2012; 7(4): e33069. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033069 LINK
  193.  Sensing the environment: Regulation of local and global homeostasis by the skin neuroendocrine system. Andrzej T. Slominski, Michal A. Zmijewski, Cezary Skobowiat, Blazej Zbytek, Radomir M. Slominski, and Jeffery D. Steketee. Adv Anat Embryol Cell Biol. 2012; 212: v–115. LINK
  194. Caloric restriction favorably impacts metabolic and immune/inflammatory profiles in obese mice but curcumin/piperine consumption adds no further benefit.Wang J, Vanegas SM, Du X, Noble T, Zingg JM, Meydani M, Meydani SN, Wu D.Nutr Metab (Lond). 2013 Mar 27;10(1):29. doi: 10.1186/1743-7075-10-29. LINK
  195. Food cues do not modulate the neuroendocrine response to a prolonged fast in healthy men. Snel M, Wijngaarden MA, Bizino MB, van der Grond J, Teeuwisse WM, van Buchem MA, Jazet IM, Pijl H.Neuroendocrinology. 2012;96(4):285-93. doi: 10.1159/000336500. Epub 2012 Apr 11. LINK
  196. SAGE Publications (2013, April 26). Intermittent fasting may help those with diabetes and cardiovascular disease, study suggests. ScienceDaily. Retrieved April 28, 2013, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/04/130426115456.htm
    • Intermittent fasting: a dietary intervention for prevention of diabetes and cardiovascular disease?James E. Brown, Michael Mosley and Sarah Aldred. British Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease, April 2013. LINK
  197. Mechanisms Responsible for Excess Weight Loss after Bariatric Surgery. Viorica Ionut, M.D., Ph.D. and Richard N Bergman, Ph.D.J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2011 September; 5(5): 1263–1282. LINK
  198. Effects of High-Protein Versus High-Carbohydrate Diets on Markers of β-Cell Function, Oxidative Stress, Lipid Peroxidation, Proinflammatory Cytokines, and Adipokines in Obese, Premenopausal Women Without Diabetes: A randomized controlled trial. Kitabchi AE, McDaniel KA, Wan JY, Tylavsky FA, Jacovino CA, Sands CW, Nyenwe EA, Stentz FB.Diabetes Care. 2013 Feb 12. LINK

Additional References from Post for Prominant associations and causes of Obesity

  1. Genetics & Epigenetics
  2. Microbiome
  3. Pesticides and BPA
  4. Sleep Disturbances
  5. Vitamin D

Genetics:

  • Genome-wide SNP and CNV analysis identifies common and low-frequency variants associated with severe early-onset obesity. Wheeler E, Huang N, Bochukova EG, Keogh JM, Lindsay S, Garg S, Henning E, Blackburn H, Loos RJ, Wareham NJ, O’Rahilly S, Hurles ME, Barroso I, Farooqi IS. Nat Genet. 2013 Apr 7. doi: 10.1038/ng.2607 LINK
  • From obesity genetics to the future of personalized obesity therapy. El-Sayed Moustafa JS, Froguel P. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2013 Mar 26. doi: 10.1038/nrendo.2013.57. LINK
  • The genetics of childhood obesity and interaction with dietary macronutrients. Garver WS, Newman SB, Gonzales-Pacheco DM, Castillo JJ, Jelinek D, Heidenreich RA, Orlando RA. Genes Nutr. 2013 Mar 8. LINK
  • What Mice Can Tell Us About Obesity by Alexandra Sifferlin January 9. 2013 http://healthland.time.com/2013/01/09/what-mice-can-tell-us-about-obesity-and-genetics/ In addition, it’s also likely that genes may not be directly responsible for obesity, but only be co-opted in the presence of certain environmental influences, like stress.

Epigenetics

  • What obesity research tells us about epigenetic mechanisms. Youngson NA, Morris MJ. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2013 Jan 5;368(1609):20110337. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2011.0337. LINK
  • Dietary factors, epigenetic modifications and obesity outcomes: Progresses and perspectives. Milagro FI, Mansego ML, De Miguel C, Martínez JA. Mol Aspects Med. 2012 Jul 4. LINK
  • Interplay of early-life nutritional programming on obesity, inflammation and epigenetic outcomes. Martínez JA, Cordero P, Campión J, Milagro FI. Proc Nutr Soc. 2012 May;71(2):276-83. doi: 10.1017/S0029665112000055. Epub 2012 Mar 6. LINK
  • Diet induced epigenetic changes and their implications for health. McKay JA, Mathers JC. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2011 Jun;202(2):103-18. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-1716.2011.02278.x. Epub 2011 Apr 19. LINK
  • Corticotropin-releasing hormone exerts direct effects on neuronal progenitor cells: implications for neuroprotection. Koutmani Y, Politis PK, Elkouris M, Agrogiannis G, Kemerli M, Patsouris E, Remboutsika E, Karalis KP. Mol Psychiatry. 2013 Mar;18(3):300-7. doi: 10.1038/mp.2012.198. Epub 2013 Feb 5. LINK

Estrogen and Endocrine Disruptors

  • American Chemical Society (2007, August 20). Revealing Estrogen’s Secret Role In Obesity. ScienceDaily. Retrieved April 11, 2013, from http://www.sciencedaily.com­/releases/2007/08/070820145348.htm
  • Environmental estrogens and obesity. Newbold RR, Padilla-Banks E, Jefferson WN. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2009 May 25;304(1-2):84-9. doi: 10.1016/j.mce.2009.02.024. Epub 2009 Mar 9. LINK
  • The estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemical bisphenol A (BPA) and obesity. Vom Saal FS, Nagel SC, Coe BL, Angle BM, Taylor JA. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2012 May 6;354(1-2):74-84. doi: 10.1016/j.mce.2012.01.001. Epub 2012 Jan 10. LINK
  • Developmental exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals programs for reproductive tract alterations and obesity later in life. Newbold RR. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Dec;94(6 Suppl):1939S-1942S. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.110.001057. Epub 2011 Nov 16. LINK
  • Female mice are protected against high-fat diet induced metabolic syndrome and increase the regulatory T cell population in adipose tissue. Pettersson US, Waldén TB, Carlsson PO, Jansson L, Phillipson M. PLoS One. 2012;7(9):e46057. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0046057. Epub 2012 Sep 25. LINK
  • (repeated)Low Dose Organochlorine Pesticides and Polychlorinated Biphenyls Predict Obesity, Dyslipidemia, and Insulin Resistance among People Free of Diabetes.Lee D-H, Steffes MW, Sjödin A, Jones RS, Needham LL, et al. (2011) PLoS ONE 6(1): e15977. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0015977 LINK
  • Obesity and persistent organic pollutants: possible obesogenic effect of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls.Dirinck E, Jorens PG, Covaci A,Obesity (Silver Spring). 2011 Apr;19(4):709-14. doi: 10.1038/oby.2010.133. Epub 2010 Jun 17. LINK
  • Endocrine disruptors and obesity: obesogens.García-Mayor RV, Larrañaga Vidal A, Docet Caamaño MF, Lafuente Giménez A.Endocrinol Nutr. 2012 Apr;59(4):261-7. doi: 10.1016/j.endonu.2011.11.008. Epub 2012 Feb 1. LINK

Sleep, Rhythms and Stress

  • A molecular clock regulates angiopoietin-like protein 2 expression. Kadomatsu T, Uragami S, Akashi M,PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e57921. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0057921. Epub 2013 Feb 28. LINK 
  • Stress, visceral obesity, and metabolic complications. Kyrou I, Chrousos GP, Tsigos C. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006 Nov;1083:77-110 .LINK
  • Sleep and obesity. Beccuti G, Pannain S.Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2011 Jul;14(4):402-12. doi: 10.1097/MCO.0b013e3283479109. LINK
  • Chronic stress and obesity: a new view of “comfort food”. Dallman MF, Pecoraro N, Akana SF,Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Sep 30;100(20):11696-701. Epub 2003 Sep 15. LINK
  • Stress and obesity: the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in metabolic disease. Bose M, Oliván B, Laferrère B. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2009 Oct;16(5):340-6. doi: 10.1097/MED.0b013e32832fa137. LINK
  • The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and sex hormones in chronic stress and obesity: pathophysiological and clinical aspects.Renato Pasquali. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2012 August; 1264(1): 20–35. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2012.06569.x  LINK
  • The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis, Obesity, and Chronic Stress Exposure: Sleep and the HPA Axis in Obesity. Eliane A. Lucassen and Giovanni CizzaCurr Obes Rep. 2012 December; 1(4): 208–215. doi: 10.1007/s13679-012-0028-5. LINK
  • Chronobiology, endocrinology, and energy- and food-reward homeostasis. Gonnissen HK, Hulshof T, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. Obes Rev. 2013 May;14(5):405-416. doi: 10.1111/obr.12019 LINK

Vitamin D and Sunlight

  • Causal relationship between obesity and vitamin D status: bi-directional Mendelian randomization analysis of multiple cohorts.Vimaleswaran KS, Berry DJ, Lu C, et. al. PLoS Med. 2013 Feb;10(2):e1001383. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001383. LINK
  • Modest reversal of metabolic syndrome manifestations with vitamin D status correction: a 12-month prospective study. Al-Daghri NM, Alkharfy KM, Al-Saleh Y, Al-Attas OS, Alokail MS, Al-Othman A, Moharram O, El-Kholie E, Sabico S, Kumar S, Chrousos GP.Metabolism. 2012 May;61(5):661-6. Epub 2011 Nov 8.  LINK
  • Seasonal changes in the interactions among leptin, ghrelin, and orexin in sheep. Kirsz K, Szczesna M, Molik E, Misztal T, Wojtowicz AK, Zieba DA. J Anim Sci. 2012 Aug;90(8):2524-31. doi: 10.2527/jas.2011-4463. Epub 2012 Jul 10. LINK
  •  Hypovitaminosis D and incidence of obesity: a prospective study.González-Molero I, Rojo-Martínez G, Morcillo S, et al. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013 Feb 20. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2013.48. LINK

Microbiota

  • Is the Gut Microbiota a New Factor Contributing to Obesity and Its Metabolic Disorders?,”Kristina Harris, Amira Kassis, Geneviève Major, and Chieh J. Chou,  Journal of Obesity, vol. 2012, Article ID 879151, 14 pages, 2012. doi:10.1155/2012/879151. LINK
  • Supplementation of Lactobacillus curvatus HY7601 and Lactobacillus plantarum KY1032 in Diet-Induced Obese Mice Is Associated with Gut Microbial Changes and Reduction in Obesity. Park DY, Ahn YT, Park SH,PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e59470. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0059470. Epub 2013 Mar 21. LINK
  • Lactic acid bacteria contribution to gut microbiota complexity: lights and shadows. Pessione E.Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2012;2:86. doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2012.00086. Epub 2012 Jun 22. LINK
  • Obesity and the gut microbiota. Flint HJ. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2011 Nov;45 Suppl:S128-32. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0b013e31821f44c4. LINK
  • Functional interactions between the gut microbiota and host metabolism. Tremaroli V, Bäckhed F. Nature. 2012 Sep 13;489(7415):242-9. doi: 10.1038/nature11552. LINK
  • Programming of host metabolism by the gut microbiota. Bäckhed F. Ann Nutr Metab. 2011;58 Suppl 2:44-52. doi: 10.1159/000328042. Epub 2011 Aug 12. LINK
  • Lipotoxicity: effects of dietary saturated and transfatty acids. Estadella D, da Penha Oller do Nascimento CM, Oyama LM,Mediators Inflamm. 2013;2013:137579. doi: 10.1155/2013/137579. Epub 2013 Jan 31 LINK
  • The interplay between the intestinal microbiota and the brain. Stephen M. Collins , Michael Surette & Premysl Bercik. Nature Reviews Microbiology 10, 735–742 (1 November 2012) | doi:10.1038/nrmicro2876. LINK
  • Lymphotoxin regulates commensal responses to enable diet-induced obesity. Vaibhav Upadhyay, Valeriy Poroyko, Tae-jin Kim, et al. Nature Immunology, 2012; DOI: 10.1038/ni.2403. LINK

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